woensdag 26 oktober 2011


The TPACK-model

Hello again. The past week we digged deeper into the TPACK-model. In this blog I will explain this model, talk about the added value of this model and I will give my reflection on it.

The TPACK-model consists of three components of knowledge: pedagogy, content and technology. In the model are also the interactions among these bodies of knowledge conceptualized: PCK, TCK, TPK and TPCK.

I will describe this several concepts and their relations now, based on Koehler and Mishra (2008):
- Content knowledge (CK). Knowledge about the actual subject matter that is to be taught and learned.
- Pedagogical knowledge (PK). Deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning and encompasses overall educational purposes, values and aims.
- Technology knowledge (TK). Goes beyond traditional notions of computer literacy to require that persons understand information technology broadly enough to apply it productively at work and in their everyday lives, to recognize when information technology can assist or impede the achievement of a goal, and to continually adapt to changes in information technology.
- Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Covers the core business of teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment, and reporting, such as the conditions that promote learning and the links among curriculum, assessment and pedagogy.
- Technological content knowledge (TCK). An understanding of the manner in which technology and content influence and constrain one another.
- Technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK). An understanding of how teaching and learning changes when particular technologies are used.
- Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). An emergent form of knowledge that goes beyond all three components. It is an understanding that emerges from an interaction of content, pedagogy and technology knowledge. Underlying truly meaningful and deeply skilled teaching with technology, TPACK is different from knowledge of all three components individually.
- Blue circle: The content, pedagogy, and technology and the complex interactions among these elements are demonstrated in the multitude of specific instructional situations and contexts.

Added value

In my opinion, TPACK is the basis of effective teaching with technology. In other blogs I posted about pedagogy and technology. TPACK is the interaction of these bodies of knowledge together with content knowledge, both theoretically and in practice (Koehler & Mishra, 2009). Also flexibility is important. In last week’s college we made a lesson with the model about ‘global warming’. We had to think about the content, pedagogy and technology; but also about the relations between them. We really had to think about several pedagogies and technologies which would fit with the content. Therefore, we had to be creative and flexible. A teacher also have to be flexible.

So I think that the added value of TPACK is highly dependent on the teachers. Because they are the ones who have to connect these technologies to their teaching practice in such a way that it supports learning. The TPACK model is a way of supporting teachers in integrating technology in their teaching (Koehler & Mishra, 2009). This model is useful for teachers because it is viewed from a teacher’s perspective and it helps teachers to think in a structured way about their teaching.

Teachers also have to have technology knowledge. Technology develops very fast. Therefore the teacher needs specific knowledge in this area to judge what ICT can mean for education. Just dealing with ICT is not enough, the teacher must have a functional understanding of ICT to create their own conceptions of it (Voogt, Fisser & Tondeur, 2010). He does not need to know and manage every new technology or ICT application. What the point is, is that he is able to quickly assess which possibilities a new technology has to make a certain subject matter easier to understand. ICT can change subjects. Examples of this are the construction of models in science, GPS with geography and hypertext in language. It is important that the teacher sees these changes and adjust his teaching practice where possible.

So there are some conditions where the teacher has to cope with. Knowledge of pedagogies and technologies is important, even as a flexible attitude. But I think nowadays we may expect this of a modern teacher. Combining content, pedagogy and technology (so, using TPACK) helps teachers in their learning to reach their goals. Technology offers so many advantages –gaining attention, better understanding for learner etc.- and combined with the right pedagogy and sufficient content knowledge the teacher has with the TPACK model a very effective way of teaching in hands.

In addition, the TPACK framework encourages research in teacher education, teacher professional development, and teachers’ use of technology (Koehler & Mishra, 2009). It allows teachers,
researchers, and teacher educators to move beyond oversimplified approaches that treat
technology as an “add-on” instead to focus again, and in a more ecological way, upon the  connections among technology, content, and pedagogy as they play out in classroom  contexts.


Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 60-70.

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPCK. In: AACTE Committee on Innovation and Technology (Ed.) Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) for Educators. (pp. 3 - 29). New York: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education and Routledge.

Voogt, J., Fisser, P., & Tondeur, J. (2010). WAT WETEN WE OVER ..............TPACK? Een literatuurstudie naar Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Kennisnet

1 opmerking:

  1. Hi Gijs, thank you for your ideas on TPACK. Yes, teachers do need TK to be able to do TPACK-related things. But making the TK-part applicable to their own situation is one of the key things that we have to consider when supporting teachers. Therefore I like your final paragraph in which you (based on Koehler & Mishra) state that thinking about the TPACK framework encourages research in teacher education and teacher professional development. And that's also what we are going to do!